Weight loss surgery or Obesity Surgery or Bariatric surgery is used as a last resort to treat people who are morbidly or dangerously obese. This surgery is recommended to treat people with potentially life-threatening obesity when other conservative treatments, such as lifestyle changes, haven't worked.
Weight loss surgery has proved to be effective option for dangerously obese people in reducing their excess body fat. You are dangerously obese if you have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or above or have a Body Mass Index of 35 or above and have another serious health condition such as type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure that could be improved if you lose weight.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a weight-for-height index that is commonly used to know whether you are underweight, overweight and obese. A BMI is defined as your weight in kilograms divided by the square of your height in metres (kg/m2)
|BMI =||Your Weight in Kilograms|
|(Your height in metres) x (Your height in metres)|
A Weight-loss surgery helps you to lose weight and lower your risk of medical problems associated with morbid obesity. Weight loss surgery may be restrictive and/or malabsorptive .A weight loss surgery may contribute to weight loss by physically limiting the amount of food that your stomach can hold. This may make you feel full stomach early and thus limit your desire to eat more. A weight loss surgery may also contribute to weight loss by reducing the absorption of calories and nutrients in the body. This is done by shortening or bypassing a part of the small intestine, which reduces the amount of calories and nutrients that your body absorbs.
There are four common types of weight-loss surgeries done at our network Bariatric Surgery Centres in India.
A Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery is the most commonly performed bariatric surgery. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery works by combining both restrictive and malabsorptive elements. In a Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery, a small pouch at the top of the stomach is created. This pouch is the only part of the stomach that receives food. Such an arrangement is done to limit the amount or the quantity of food or liquids that you can comfortably eat and drink at one time. This makes you feel full early thus limiting your food intake. Once the pouch is created at the top of the stomach, your small intestine is then cut a short distance below the main stomach and connected directly to the pouch. The food that you eat flows directly from the pouch into this part of the intestine. The lower section of the main part of your stomach no longer receives, stores, and mixes food but remains functional by continuing to secrete digestive juices. The portion of the intestine still attached to the lower section of the main stomach is reattached farther down. This allows the digestive juices to flow to the small intestine. Since the food that you eat now bypasses a portion of the small intestine, fewer nutrients and calories are absorbed by the body.
In an adjustable gastric banding procedure, an inflatable silicone band is placed around the top portion of your stomach to create a small pouch with a very narrow opening to the rest of the stomach. The food first passes through the pouch before proceeding through the normal digestive cycle. The gastric band limits the amount of food that can enter the stomach at one time, and creates a more immediate feeling of fullness.To adjust the amount of food intake, your surgeon can adjust the gastric band by injecting a saline solution to expand or contract it. Since the process of digestion remains the same once food passes through the pouch, your body can continue the normal nutritional absorption.
In a sleeve gastrectomy surgery, the size of your stomach is reduced by surgically removing a part of your stomach from the body. The remaining portion is pulled up and stitched. This creates a smaller, longer stomach, a tube-like structure. Since the stomach has got smaller, it cannot hold much food now. Moreover, it also produces lesser amount of appetite-regulating hormone ghrelin, which may lessen your desire to eat. Sleeve gastrectomy does not affect the absorption of calories and nutrients in the intestines.
The biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch is a combination of two surgeries. This surgery makes your stomach smaller and also bypasses part of your small intestine. Hence this surgery has a restrictive part and a malabsorptive part. The restrictive part uses a sleeve gastrectomy to make the stomach smaller .This surgery keeps the pyloric valve intact, unlike other surgeries that bypass it. Keeping the pyloric valve intact lowers your risk of getting certain ulcers, or a blocked or narrowed opening. The malabsorptive part of this surgery rearranges the small intestine to separate the flow of food from the flow of bile and pancreatic juices. This leads to absorption of fewer calories by your body from most of the foods. Further down the digestive tract, the divided paths are rejoined. Food and digestive juices begin to mix, and some absorption happens in the common tract as the food continues on its path toward the large intestine.
In a Minimally Invasive Weight Loss Surgery or Laparoscopic Weight Loss Surgery, your surgeon will make several small incisions to make ports rather than one large incision, and use long, thin surgical instruments. A narrow video camera is also passed through one of these ports so that the surgeon can view the operative site on a nearby video monitor. Our network obesity surgery centres in India use minimally invasive techniques for weight-loss surgery whenever possible. The advantages of Minimally Invasive Weight Loss Surgery are smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays and faster recovery than traditional open surgery.
You must understand that a weight loss surgery is not a quick fix remedy or magic cure for obesity. You have to stick to a rigorous and lifelong plan afterwards to avoid putting weight back on or long-term complications. You need to follow a carefully controlled diet and regular exercise as prescribed by your surgeon.
As long as you are able to stick to agreed lifestyle plan after your surgery, a weight loss surgery can effectively reduce your weight and treat conditions associated with obesity, such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Just like any other major surgery, a weight loss surgery carries some risk of complications like internal bleeding or a blood clot inside the leg or a blood clot or other blockage inside the lungs.