What is Hysterectomy
The surgical procedure done for removal of Uterus and other reproductive organs like the ovaries or the fallopian tubes is known as Hysterectomy. This is done if one or more of the following problems are occurring viz fibroids, heavy bleeding, endometriosis, prolapse, carcinoma and uncontrolled bleeding after delivery. Hysterectomy is done though an incision in the abdomen or the vagina. There are different kinds of hysterectomy, namely:
- Partial or Supra-cervical hysterectomy: This is removal of just the upper part of the uterus whereas the cervix is left as it is.
- Total hysterectomy: Removal of the entire uterus and the cervix.
- Radical hysterectomy: It involves removal of the uterus, the tissue situated on both sides of the cervix (known as parametrium), and the upper part of the vagina. This kind of hysterectomy is done to treat cancers.
Types of Hysterectomy
Depending on the medical history and the reason for which the surgery is being performed, following different hysterectomy options can be used.
- Abdominal hysterectomy: In this procedure an incision of 5-inch to 7-inch is done in the lower part of the belly.
- Vaginal hysterectomy: In this procedure a cut in made in the vagina and then the uterus is removed from this cut. Thereafter the cut is closed with stitches.
- Laparoscopic hysterectomy: For this procedure 3-4 small cuts are made in the belly and a laparoscope and other surgical instruments are inserted through the cuts. The uterus is than cut into small pieces and removed through the cuts.
- Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy: The uterus is removed through a cut inside the vagina, but this is done with the laparoscopic method.
Why is the Procedure Performed?
Hysterectomy is recommended if one or the following problems exist:
- Uterine fibroids
- Endometrial cancer
- Cancer of the cervix or Cervical dysplasia
- Ovarian cancer
- Severe and chronic uncontrollable vaginal bleeding
- Prolapse of the uterus: i.e. when the uterus slips down into the vagina.
- Adenomyosis. I.e. the tissue that lines the uterus grows inside the walls of the uterus
- Chronic pelvic pain
- Complications during childbirth, like uncontrollable bleeding
As there are numerous risks in any kind of surgery like allergic reactions to medicines, reathing troubles, Blood clotting, Bleeding and Infection. Likewise hysterectomy surgery is also accompanied with the following risks:
- Damage to nearby organs, bladder or blood vessels
- Injury to intestines
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Early menopause if the ovaries are removed
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