The prostate gland is a part of a man’s reproductive system and is located at the base or neck of the urinary bladder. Its main function is to store and secrete a slightly alkaline fluid that constitutes 20-30% of the volume of the semen. This alkaline fluid neutralizes the acidic vaginal passage for semen retention.
What is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer is a cancerous growth in the cells of the prostate gland. It is the third most common cause of death from cancer in men of all ages and it is most prevalent in men over 75 years of age. Prostate cancer is seldom found in men younger than 40.
Causes of Prostate Cancer.
• Men who are older than 60
• Family history of Prostate cancer
• Excessive alcohol consumption
• High fat diet, particularly animal fat
• Exposure to cadmium and other radiations.
Prostate Cancer Symptoms
The symptoms listed below can occur with prostate cancer but these symptoms are caused by other prostate problems also, so a proper diagnosis should be carried before confirmation of the disease.
• Tardy start and a slow urinary stream that causes strain while urinating. And one might not be able to empty out all of the urine at a time.
• Dribbling or leakage of urine even after urinating.
• Discharge of blood in urine or semen
• Pain in lower back and pelvic bones (only when the cancer has spread)
Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
• Rectal examination
• Prostate biopsy
• PSA blood test
• CT scan
• Bone scan
Prostate Cancer Treatment
Based on the stage of cancer and the risk factors the line of treatment is decided. Following are some of the options available:
Surgery: It can be done to remove the prostate and the nearby tissue, this option is favorable when the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate gland. This surgery is called Radical Prostatectomy.
Radiation Therapy: In this High-powered x-rays are used to kill cancer cells.
o Prostate Brachytherapy.In this procedure some radioactive seeds are placed inside the prostate gland to destroy the malignancy.
o Proton Therapy is also a common type of radiotherapy used to treat prostate cancer. In this proton beams are aimed onto a tumor, so there is less damage to the surrounding tissue.
Hormone Therapy: Prostate cancer cells needs testosterone to grow. Thus with the help of Hormonal therapy the effect of testosterone is decreased on prostate cancer. These treatments prevent further growth and spread of cancer.
Chemotherapy: This is used to treat those prostate cancers which no longer respond to hormone treatment.